Types Of Occupational Therapy Interventions

Therapeutic Use of Self - An occupational therapy practitioner's planned use of his or her personality, insights, perceptions, and judgments as part of the therapeutic process.

Therapeutic Use of Occupations and Activities - Occupations and activities selected for specific clients that meet therapeutic goals. To use occupations/activities therapeutically, context or contexts, activity demands, and client factors all should be considered in relation to the client's therapeutic goals. Use of assistive technologies, application of universal-design principles, and environmental modifications support the ability of clients to engage in their occupations.

Occupation-based intervention Pupose: Client engages in client-directed occupations that match identified goals.

Examples:
- Completes morning dressing and hygiene using adaptive devices
- Purchases groceries and prepares a meal
- Utilizes the transportation system
- Applies for a job
- Plays on playground and community recreation equipment
- Participates in a community festival
- Establishes a pattern of self-care and relaxation activities in preparation for sleep
Purposeful activity Purpose: Client engages in specifically selected activities that allow the client to develop skills that enhance occupational engagement.

Examples:
- Practices how to select clothing and manipulate clothing fasteners
- Practices safe ways to get in and out of a bathtub
- Practices how to prepare a food list and rehearses how to use cooking appliances
- Practices how to use a map and transportation schedule
- Rehearses how to write answers on an application form
- Practices how to get on and off playground and recreation equipment
- Role plays when to greet people and initiates conversation
- Practices how to use adaptive switches to operate home environmental control system
Preparatory methods Purpose: Practitioner selects directed methods and techniques that prepare the client for occupational performance. Used in preparation for or concurrently with purposeful and occupation-based activities.

Examples:
- Provides sensory enrichment to promote alertness
- Administers physical agent modalities to prepare muscles for movement
- Provides instruction in visual imagery and rhythmic breathing to promote rest and relaxation
- Issues orthotics/splints to provide support and facilitate movement
- Suggests a home-based conditioning regimen using Pilates and yoga
- Provides hand-strengthening exercises using therapy putty and theraband
- Provides instruction in assertiveness to prepare for self-advocacy


Consultation Process - A type of intervention in which occupational therapy practitioners use their knowledge and expertise to collaborate with the client. The collaborative process involves identifying the problem, creating possible solutions, trying solutions, and altering them as necessary for greater effectiveness. When providing consultation, the practitioner is not directly responsible for the outcome of the intervention.

Person - Advises a family about architectural options
- Advises family how to create pre-sleep nighttime routines for their children
Organization - Recommends work pattern modifications and egonomically designed workstations for a company
- Recommends disaster evacuation strategies for a residental community related to accessibility and reduced environmental barriers
Population - Advises senior citizens on older driver initiatives


Education Process - An intevention process that involves imparting knowledge and information about occupation, health, and participation and that does not result in the actual performance of the occupation/activity.

Person - Instructs a classroom teacher on sensory regulation strategies.
Organization - Teaches staff at a homeless shelter how to structure daily living, play, and leisure activities for shelter members.
Population - Instructs town officials about the value of and strategies for making walking and biking paths accessible for all community members.


Advocacy - Efforts directed toward promoting occupational justice and empowering clients to seek and obtain resources to fully participate in their daily life occupations.

Person - Collaborates with a person to procure reasonable accomodations at worksite
Organization - Serves on policy board of an organization to procure supportive housing accomodations for persons with disabilities
Population - Collaborates with adults with serious mental illness to raise public awareness of the impact of this stigma
- Collaborates with and educates federal funding sources for the disabled population to include cancer patients to their full remission